In the olden days, Nigerians believed that sickle cell was the result of spiritual attacks, and when they lost their babies, they claimed that the child was destined to die young. Yoruba people called it Abiku, while in Ebira language, it’s called Emasu. These beliefs led to a lot of misunderstanding and stigma around sickle cell disease, with many people not realizing that it is a genetic condition that can be passed down from parents to their children.
Today, we know better. We know that sickle cell is not caused by spiritual attacks, but rather by a genetic mutation that affects the shape of red blood cells. We also know that sickle cell is not the only genetic condition that can be passed down from parents to their children. This is why it is important to understand genotype and to take it seriously in today’s time and age.
What is Genotype?
Genotype refers to the genetic makeup of an individual, and it is determined by the combination of genes that an individual inherits from their parents. The human genotype consists of two copies of each gene, one from each parent. These genes can be either dominant or recessive, and the combination of dominant and recessive genes can determine a person’s genotype.
Importance of Understanding Genotype
One of the most important aspects of understanding genotype is knowing which genotypes are compatible for marriage. Some genotypes can be compatible, while others can result in serious health problems for the offspring. For example, individuals who are homozygous for sickle cell (i.e. have two copies of the sickle cell gene) can pass the disease to their children. This is why it is recommended that individuals who are carriers of the sickle cell gene should not marry each other.
List of Genotypes.
To make it easier to understand which genotypes are compatible for marriage, here is a table that outlines the variations of genotype and the ones that can marry each other
Here are the compatible and incompatible genotypes:
|AA + AA||AA, AA, AA, AA (Excellent)|
|AA + AS||AA, AS, AA, AS, (Good)|
|AA + SS||AS, AS, AS, AS, (Fair)|
|AA + AC||AA, AA, AA, AC. (Good)|
|AS + AS||AA, AS, AS, SS, (Bad)|
|AS + AC||AA, AC, AS,SS. (Bad; Advice needed)|
|AS + SS||AS, SS, SS, SS, (Very Bad)|
|AS + SC||AS, AC, SS, SC (Very Bad)|
|SS + SS||SS, SS, SS, SS, (Very Bad)|
|AC + SS||AS, AS, SC, SC, (Very Bad)|
|SC + SS||SS, SS, SC, SC, (Very Bad)|
Frequently Asked Questions about Genotype
What is genotype?
Genotype refers to the genetic makeup of an individual, specifically the combination of alleles inherited from their parents that determine their physical and biological traits.
How is genotype determined?
Genotype is determined by the combination of genes inherited from both parents. Each gene has two alleles, and the combination of alleles from both parents determines the individual’s genotype.
What is a carrier?
A carrier is an individual who has one copy of a recessive allele for a particular trait, but does not express that trait in their phenotype. However, they can pass the recessive allele on to their children.
What is sickle cell anemia?
Sickle cell anemia is a genetic blood disorder caused by a mutation in the HBB gene that leads to the production of abnormal hemoglobin. Individuals with sickle cell anemia have red blood cells that are misshapen, causing them to get stuck in blood vessels and leading to various health complications.
In conclusion, understanding genotype is crucial in preventing the transmission of genetic diseases. By knowing which genotypes are compatible for marriage, individuals can make informed decisions about their reproductive health and reduce the risk of passing on genetic conditions to their offspring. It is important for everyone to take genotype seriously, especially in today’s time and age where knowledge about genetics is more accessible than ever before.